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Video Security Equipment Glossary (Part Two)
· Effio : Type of specialized sensor chip manufactured by Sony that is known for capturing higher quality and higher resolution video feeds in all lighting environments.
· Ethernet : The standard type of data transfer network used for local area networks (LANs) that runs at a maximum speed of 100Mbps over 100 meters of cabling.
· F-Number : Also known as the focal ratio, this is the ratio of the focal length of a camera lens to the diameter of the iris aperture that indicates the amount of light being allowed to enter the camera. A brighter image indicates a smaller F-number.
· Fisheye Camera : Type of camera that utilizes a fisheye lens to create a 360° field of view around the camera.
· Focal Length : Normally notated in millimeters (mm), this is the distance from the center of a lens to the point where an object in the camera’s field of view is clear and in focus. Focal length is a vitally important factor when choosing a lens as focal length and field of view (FOV) are inversely related, meaning that a small focal length will produce a wide FOV and a large focal length will produce a narrow FOV. Typically, small focal length lenses are used to monitor areas in close proximity to a camera’s position and large focal length lenses are used to view areas over long distances.
· FOV : Field of view is produced by the camera lenses focal length and is effectively the camera’s line of sight. This is the horizontal angle to a given distances from the camera.
· FPS : Also known as frame rate, frames per second is the number of images captured per second by a video camera. The higher number of FPS that a camera can capture, the more fluid the resulting video will be. 30fps is considered real-time as it is the same rate at which the human eye views the world.
· Gamma : A measure of luminance is relation to the magnitude of brightness of a video or image.
· Gamma Correction : Feature that automatically corrects a camera’s video feed to balance the brightness to a desired level. Increasing
· H.264 : Type of video compression standard which is used to record, compress, and distribute video feeds. H.264 video compression greatly reduces the overall size of a video file and maximizes the video recorder’s storage space.
· HDCCTV : Also known as HD-SDI, High Definition Closed Circuit Television is an industry standard for transmitting uncompressed HD video (up to 1080p) over coaxial cable which allows for IP quality video over an analog infrastructure.
· HDD : Hard Drive Disc that stores video files from the DVR to be played back at a later date.
· HD-SDI : See HDCCTV.
· Hybrid : Type of video recorder that allows the use of both analog and IP cameras in a single system. Can refer to a hybrid DVR card, hybrid standalone video recorder, or hybrid PC based video recorder.
· IK Rating : Vandalproof rating standard that identifies the magnitude of force a camera or camera housing may withstand without suffering a catastrophic failure.
· Illumination Range : The effective distance at which an infrared security camera can monitor in complete darkness due to the amount of infrared LEDs present on the camera or on a supplemental infrared illuminator.
· IP Rating : Weatherproof rating standard that notates the type of weather a camera or camera housing may protect against. The IP rating ranges from none to complete submersion in water.
· IP Address : This is the location of an IP camera on a network which can be used to locate said camera on a PC or browser as well as being used to configure an IP camera to function properly on a particular security camera system. IP addresses typically abide by the following format: 18.104.22.168
· IP Camera : Type of security camera that can be viewed by entering its IP address into a web browser or PC. IP cameras are typically multi-megapixel cameras that capture high resolution video feeds.
· Iris : See aperture.
· LAN : A local area network is a series of interconnected computers in a smaller geographic area that do not use telecommunication lines. They may be as small as an apartment or as large as a commercial skyscraper.
· LED : Light emitting diodes are used to emit infrared light to aid security cameras in seeing clearly in low-light and zero-light environments. Typically, the more IR LEDs there are on a camera, the better it is able to see at night.
· LPR : License plate recognition is a type of security camera coupled with software where the camera is able to capture video of a vehicle passing through its field of view (FOV) where the software will intuitively identify the license plate, store it in a log, and cross-reference its database for any associated information about the plate number.
· Lux : Standard for determining the luminance, or brightness, of an area where a single lux is equal to a single lumen per square meter. 0.0001 lux is a moonless night and 1 lux is a full moon on a clear night.
· Manual Iris Lens : A type of lens where the iris, or aperture, must be adjusted manually. Typically used indoors or in areas with constant lighting.
· Megapixel : 1,000,000 pixels and also the measure of the amount of display elements in digital display or camera. Megapixel and multi-megapixel security cameras capture video footage at a significantly higher resolution than their analog counterparts, i.e. a 1.3 megapixel IP camera captures 1,300,000 pixels in a single frame (1280×1024), 2 megapixel captures 2,000,000 pixels in a single frame (1920×1080), etc.
· Monofocal Lens : Also known as a fixed lens, this is a type of lens that has a single focal length and cannot be adjusted.
· MJPEG : Type of video compression where each video frame is sequentially compressed as a JPEG image. Also known as Motion JPEG.
· Motion Detection : Type of recording method where video is only recorded when motion is detected within the camera’s field of view. Helps to significantly reduce the amount of video stored and prolong the life of your video recorder.
· MP : Abbreviation for megapixel. See megapixel.
· MPEG-4 : Method for compressing digital video data for storage and playback.
· Multiplexer : Type of device that allows video cameras to display their footage on a monitor without storing the video data.
· NTSC : Type of standard video format that is used on TVs in most of the Americas and many countries in the Pacific Rim.
· NVR : Network video recorders capture and store video feeds produced by network IP cameras. Most NVRs come with software which allows immense versatility through a variety of features that can be used to automate aspects of your security operations. NVRs come in standalone units and PC based video recorders.
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